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Monday, October 22, 2012

GENETIC FACTS that shed light on ancient indigenous Albanian people

Prof. Genc Sulçebe

Albanian revival of the nineteenth century was characterized by a strengthening of the strong sense of national identity, a feeling which was supported and surfacing at the time of many new scientific data and historical character language of origin of the Albanian nation. Special contribution in this area have known scholars of that time as Thunmann, Hahn and others who identified the Illyrian origin of the Albanian people and the authenticity of the Albanian language based primarily on studies of the language, and rediscovery of the writings of ancient historians such as Polybius or city Ptolemy.

After declaring independence in 1912, further studies language and albanological Albanian and foreign researchers as Shuflaj, Xhuvani, Çabej, Demiraj other rich scientific data on indigenous origins of the Albanian people, but always based on classical methods such as language or archaeological studies. But indoeuropiane origins of most of the languages ​​of the European continent makes it somewhat difficult to clearly identify the authenticity of a particular language considering their distant common ancestry. The lack of English language written documentation prior to the fifteenth century it difficult to identify its historical continuity.

With all our Renaissance historical contribution, as well as decades of the twentieth century domestic and foreign, there have been other researchers, Georgiev, Russu or Shramm, who are based in other linguistic and historical arguments thrown thesis on a migration Late in the Albanian lands where they currently live. In this context, the need of identifying the facts and new scientific methods, which will serve as additional arguments to establish the autochthony of the Albanian people in his territories.

The study of the origin of language idioms, using computer programs modeled after the methodology has made it possible for genetic studies starting from the comparison of a number of at least 200 basic words from any language, can be determined differentiation tree languages indoeuropiane. This paper, published by Atkinson and Gray on known scientific journal "Nature" in 2003 failed to identify common trees and specific ramifications languages ​​indoeuropiane and defined the English language as a separate branch in the trunk of languages ​​indoeuropiane, which is separated from other languages ​​at least 4000 years ago. The study confirms the authenticity of the language, but did not reject the thesis eventually deniers Albanian autochthony try to argue a recent migration of Albanians to their homes carrying with them their language.

In this regard, recent studies imunogjenetike committed by Albanian authors comparing the diversity of HLA genetic system genes among the Albanian population in Kosovo and Albania, as well as other European populations (Sulcebe et al, in: International Journal of IMMUNOGENETICS, August 2009 and June 2012) have highlighted the original evidence, which cast a new light on the autochthony of the Albanian territories.

Gene HLA system is a system, which the governing body's immune response and are characterized by a great variety within the human species so similar to blood groups, but with a variation hundred times greater. This variety is specific to each population, but also presents common features for specific geographic regions. Collected data on a variety of HLA system in different populations are numerous, as they are carried out for research purposes in the field of transplantove, which is an advantage of this system compared to other systems for which genetic data are less full. They have made it possible by matching variability shpeshtësive HLA system genes in different populations are calculated and genetic distances between these populations. Given these distances made possible the creation of genetic maps for all continents and geographic regions included in them.

HLA-NET project in the framework of EU COST program, attended and researchers from our country, has recently developed such maps for all regions of the world and especially in Europe. A special feature of these maps is the fact that genetic distances between populations are generally in proportion to the geographical distances. This is evident in Europe where evidenced a gradient vector with respect veri-perëndim/juglindje genetic distance and genetic difference of populations that have migrated from Asia to Europe north of the Alps from the following European Alps. Del also highlighted the fact that as a rule, have close neighboring populations greater genetic than those further away geographically. This is not only due to common genetic compounds among the people near joint climatic and epidemiological conditions, but a common history of migration and the formation of neighboring nations. Here differentiated bask people which is further compared with other popujte genetically adjoining which is dedicated to native ancient history and not its indoeuropiane.

From the study conducted with HLA system genes in Albanian populations in Kosovo and Albania, compared with other European and Balkan populations briefly some interesting conclusions can be drawn:

First, the genetic distance between two Albanian populations, that in Albania and Kosovo is negligible, this test genetic unity of the Albanian people wherever he lives.

Second, in the Balkan region differentiate two main population groups: a group of Greek populations, Albanian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, and another group where populations participate Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. Populations that are part of each of these two groups have a much greater similarity within the group than to any other population group. It is interesting to note that these changes are found in the Balkan peninsula are most prominent in comparison with other regions of Central Europe, North or North West where there are no such differences, although these regions lie on the surface of things that the Balkan region.

Thirdly, among the Kosovar Albanian population on the one hand and the Serb population on the other hand, changes in the genetic distances are apparent and statistically significant. This runs contrary to the general close relationship with genetic distance as observed geographic and Central and Eastern European map showing the genetic distances of the peoples of this area of ​​the Kosovar population is used as a starting point in the calculation of these distance (Figure 1).

Figure 2
While tree philogenetic the peoples of this region calculated from the genetic distances between them (Figure 2) was developed through the "Neighbor-Joining" in a similar way that the aforementioned computer programs to study the differentiation of languages ​​based on the differences between words with the same meaning.

These scientific facts based on genetic studies performed in the DNA of current populations support the thesis of autochthony of the Albanians strongly established by our ancestors revival. Legitimate question arises: Does the history of the Pelasgians as a prehistoric ancient people in the Balkan territories has a really?

Have the right to raise the hypothesis that the current changes linguistic, cultural and religious ties between the Albanian population, Macedonian and Bulgarian are simply subsequent layers and these people have a common substrate ancient Thracian-Illyrian genetic? Maybe not in vain as Alexander the Great and Macedonia and Epirus Pyrrhus are considered by our ancestors as ancestral sites, today's Albanians.

On the other hand, population genetic proximity with those ancient Greek confirms autochthony of these two neighboring peoples in these lands. If the theories of "unbelievers autochthony" on recent migration of Albanians were true then between Albanian and Greek populations genetic changes would be noticeable, as with Serbian population.

It is interesting to note that the data are Albanian researchers and recently confirmed by a study conducted by American geneticists (Ralph and Coop, University of California, July 2012). These scholars, also using molecular biology methods (other than HLA system), have reached conclusions similar to Albanian scholars.

A direct and practical impact of these new findings is the benefit of creating national and international donor registries based gjakformuese cells (stem) and bodies for the Balkan region. Given the genetic closeness of the people who live in this region, these records would be very valuable to make available to patients who need transplants, unrelated blood donors, but convenient by imunogjenetike.

While from the perspective of population genetic origin can say without hesitation that these new scientific evidence, based on modern molecular biology methodologies, and the use of sophisticated computer programs already confirmed the authenticity of "the first call" our revival on the antiquity of English language and autochthony of the Albanian territories.

Figure 2. Graphical bidimensionale genetic distance among 16 populations of Central and Southeastern Europe, calculated starting from HLA gene frequencies in these populations.

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